MRI-Guided Pediatric Interventions - A Retrospective Case Study
Cell Transformation, Viral
Receptors, Cell Surface
Aim: There are only a few diagnostic or therapeutic procedures where MR imaging is applied during pediatric interventions. This study will describe indications, complications as well as the advantages and disadvantages of MRI-guided interventions based on a case study in an open MRI scanner. Materials and Methods: 14 procedures were performed in an open MRI scanner (Signa SP/i, GEMS) on 13 children (1-16 yr) with bone, soft tissue and brain lesions (1-4 cm diameter). Localization of the pathology, targeting and final control of the result were based on images acquired with SE-, 3D-, GE-sequences pre- and post-contrast as well as FSE-sequences. Interactive MRI-guided instrument navigation was performed using a multiplanar T1 w GE-sequence. Results: Eight biopsies (incl. 1 rebiopsy), two tumor resections, one removal of a free joint mouse and three tumor-markings were performed without complications. Five biopsies provided appropriate sample quality for a histological diagnosis while two samples were too fragmented requiring a second biopsy (one of them MRI-guided). Surgical progress during tumor resection and marking could be controlled during the intervention without repositioning the patient. Discussion: MR image guided pediatric interventions combine the advantage of an imaging system without ionizing radiation and the high soft-tissue contrast. The low number of these kinds of procedures can be explained by the relatively high costs for the intervention, the increased duration for each procedure and the limited availability of open MRI systems. The integrated localization-system helps during planning of the access path when facing complex anatomical structures and provides safe navigation in sensitive regions like the epiphyseal cartilage. Recent and expected developments of the required MR-compatible biopsy instruments could provide higher efficiency for appropriate sample size and quality. Summarizing, MRI-guided pediatric interventions have shown to be a promising method at the beginning of its development.