Ex Vivo T Cell-Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Adult Patients with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in First and Second Remission: Long-Term Disease-Free Survival with a Significantly Reduced Risk of Graft-versus-Host Disease
Stem Cell Transplantation
Large series of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) after ex vivo T cell-depleted (TCD) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) have not been reported previously. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 266 patients (median age, 54 years) with AML who received CD34-selected TCD allo-HSCTs while in first (75%) or second (25%) complete remission (CR1/CR2) at a single institution. The conditioning regimens were all myeloablative, and no additional graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was given. The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD at 180 days were 14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10% to 18%) and 3% (95% CI, 1% to 5%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD at 3 years was 3% (95% CI, 1% to 6%). The 3-year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 21% (95% CI, 16% to 26%) and that of relapse was 21% (95% CI, 17% to 27%). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 1, 3, and 5 years were 75%, 61%, and 56% and 68%, 57%, and 53%, respectively. There were no significant differences in OS, DFS, and relapse rates for patients who underwent transplantation in CR1 and those who did so in CR2. However, patients with high-risk cytogenetics at diagnosis had significantly poorer outcomes. The OS and DFS rates compare favorably with those for unmodified allo-HSCT, but with considerably lower rates of GVHD.