Peri- and Postpartum Management of Patients With Factor XI Deficiency
Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is an uncommon autosomal disorder with variable bleeding phenotype, making peripartum management challenging. We describe our experience in pregnant women with FXI deficiency and identify strategies to minimize the use of hemostatic agents and increase utilization of neuraxial anesthesia. Electronic records of 28 pregnant women with FXI deficiency seen by a hematology service in an academic medical center from January 2006 to August 2018 were reviewed. Data on bleeding, obstetric history, peripartum management, and FXI activity were collected. Partial FXI deficiency was defined as >20 IU/dL and severe <20 IU/dL. Median FXI activity was 42 IU/dL (range <1-73 IU/dL), and median activated partial thromboplastin time was 32.2 seconds (range: 27.8-75 seconds). There were 64 pregnancies: 53 (83%) live births and 11 (17%) pregnancy losses. Postpartum hemorrhage occurred in 9 (17%) pregnancies. Antifibrinolytic agents and fresh frozen plasma were used only in women with severe deficiency (42% with bleeding and 17% with no bleeding phenotype, respectively). Neuraxial anesthesia was successfully administered in 32 (59%) deliveries. Most women with FXI deficiency have uncomplicated pregnancies and deliveries with minimal hemostatic support. Neuraxial anesthesia can be safely administered in most women.