Role of Sex in Determining Treatment Type for Patients Undergoing Endovascular Lower Extremity Revascularization
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Surgical Procedures, Operative
Background Limited data exist to describe factors that influence the use of different endovascular treatments for peripheral arterial disease. Therefore, we studied sex differences in the utilization of endovascular treatment modalities and their impact on arterial patency. Methods and Results We analyzed procedures from 2010 to 2016 in the Vascular Quality Initiative for arteries treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) alone, stenting (with/without PTA), and atherectomy (with/without PTA). We explored sex differences in treatment modality by arterial segment (iliac, femoropopliteal, and tibial) with multivariable logistic regression. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariable Cox regression to study sex differences in arterial reintervention and occlusion. In this cohort, patients (n=58 247, mean age 68 years, 41% women,) had 106 073 arteries treated (median=2 arteries, interquartile range=1-3). Half (50%) of these arteries were treated with stents, 39% with PTA alone, and 11% with atherectomy. After risk adjustment, women were less likely to undergo stenting or atherectomy (versus PTA alone) in the femoropopliteal (stent risk ratio=0.78 [0.74-0.82]; atherectomy risk ratio=0.69 [0.58-0.82]) and tibial arteries (stent risk ratio=0.70 [0.55-0.89]; atherectomy risk ratio=0.87 [0.70-1.07]). In the iliac arteries there was no sex difference in stenting, and atherectomy was rarely used (0.2%). Women underwent reintervention in the femoropopliteal arteries (hazard ratio=1.28 [1.17-1.40]) or developed an occlusion in the iliac (hazard ratio=1.42 [1.12-1.81]) and femoropopliteal arteries (hazard ratio=1.19 [1.06-1.34]) more frequently than men. Conclusions Women were less likely to undergo stenting or atherectomy and had higher rates of occlusion and reintervention, especially in the femoropopliteal arteries. Evidence-based guidelines are needed to guide optimal use of endovascular treatments for men and women.