Dual-Pharmacophore Pyrithione-Containing Cephalosporins Kill Both Replicating and Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders
Bone and Bones
© 2019 American Chemical Society. The historical view of β-lactams as ineffective antimycobacterials has given way to growing interest in the activity of this class against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the presence of a β-lactamase inhibitor. However, most antimycobacterial β-lactams kill Mtb only or best when the bacilli are replicating. Here, a screen of 1904 β-lactams led to the identification of cephalosporins substituted with a pyrithione moiety at C3′ that are active against Mtb under both replicating and nonreplicating conditions, neither activity requiring a β-lactamase inhibitor. Studies showed that activity against nonreplicating Mtb required the in situ release of the pyrithione, independent of the known class A β-lactamase, BlaC. In contrast, replicating Mtb could be killed both by released pyrithione and by the parent β-lactam. Thus, the antimycobacterial activity of pyrithione-containing cephalosporins arises from two mechanisms that kill mycobacteria in different metabolic states.
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