A Special Report on Changing Trends in Preventive Stroke/Cardiovascular Risk Assessment Via B-Mode Ultrasonography
Carotid Artery Diseases
Carotid Artery, Internal
© 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Purpose of Review: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke risk assessment have been largely based on the success of traditional statistically derived risk calculators such as Pooled Cohort Risk Score or Framingham Risk Score. However, over the last decade, automated computational paradigms such as machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques have penetrated into a variety of medical domains including CVD/stroke risk assessment. This review is mainly focused on the changing trends in CVD/stroke risk assessment and its stratification from statistical-based models to ML-based paradigms using non-invasive carotid ultrasonography. Recent Findings: In this review, ML-based strategies are categorized into two types: non-image (or conventional ML-based) and image-based (or integrated ML-based). The success of conventional (non-image-based) ML-based algorithms lies in the different data-driven patterns or features which are used to train the ML systems. Typically these features are the patients’ demographics, serum biomarkers, and multiple clinical parameters. The integrated (image-based) ML-based algorithms integrate the features derived from the ultrasound scans of the arterial walls (such as morphological measurements) with conventional risk factors in ML frameworks. Summary: Even though the review covers ML-based system designs for carotid and coronary ultrasonography, the main focus of the review is on CVD/stroke risk scores based on carotid ultrasound. There are two key conclusions from this review: (i) fusion of image-based features with conventional cardiovascular risk factors can lead to more accurate CVD/stroke risk stratification; (ii) the ability to handle multiple sources of information in big data framework using artificial intelligence-based paradigms (such as ML and DL) is likely to be the future in preventive CVD/stroke risk assessment.
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