Immune Cytopenias after Ex Vivo CD34+-Selected Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
Stem Cell Transplantation
© 2019 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Immune-mediated cytopenias (ICs), such as immune thrombocytopenia and immune hemolytic anemia, are among the adverse events after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Previous reports suggest that in vivo T cell depletion may increase the incidence of IC after allo-HCT. We evaluated whether a strategy that reduces functional donor T cells via ex vivo CD34+-selection associates with the development of IC in a cohort of 408 patients who underwent allo-HCT for hematologic malignancy. The cumulative incidence of IC at 6, 12, and 36 months after the 30-day landmark post-HCT was 3.4%, 4.9%, and 5.8%, respectively. Among 23 patients who developed IC, 7 died of relapse-related mortality and 4 of nonrelapse mortality. A median 2 types of treatment (range, 1 to 5) was required to resolve IC, and there was considerable heterogeneity in the therapies used. In univariable analyses, a hematologic malignancy Disease Risk Index (DRI) score of 3 was significantly associated with an increased risk of IC compared with a DRI of 1 or 2 (hazard ratio [HR], 4.12; P =.003), and IC (HR, 2.4; P =.03) was associated with increased risk of relapse. In a multivariable analysis that included DRI, IC remained significantly associated with increased risk of relapse (HR, 2.4; P =.03). Our findings show that IC events occur with relatively similar frequency in patients after ex vivo CD34+-selected allo-HCT compared with unmodified allo-HCT, suggesting that reduced donor T cell immunity is not causative of IC. Moreover, we noted a possible link between its development and/or treatment and increased risk of relapse.
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