Alignment of inhaled chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapies with published strategies :analysis of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease recommendations in SpiroMics
Endothelial Growth Factors
Gene Expression Regulation
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Among SPIROMICS participants with COPD, nearly 50% reported inhaler regimens that did not align with GOLD recommendations. Nonalignment was driven largely by overuse of ICS regimens in milder disease and lack of long-acting inhalers in severe disease.