Regional differences in gallbladder cancer pathogenesis: Insights from a multi-institutional comparison of tumor mutations
Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
Differences in clinicopathologic variables suggest the possibility of distinct GBCA pathogenesis in Japanese patients, which may be supported by differences in mutation pattern. Among all centers, SMAD4 mutations were detected in approximately one-third of patients and may represent a converging factor associated with worse survival. The majority of patients carried mutations in actionable gene targets, which may inform the design of future trials.