Reconstitution of the gut microbiota of antibiotic-treated patients by autologous fecal microbiota transplant Academic Article uri icon

Overview

MeSH Major

  • Graft vs Host Disease
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Lymphocytes
  • Thymus Gland

abstract

  • Antibiotic treatment can deplete the commensal bacteria of a patient's gut microbiota and, paradoxically, increase their risk of subsequent infections. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), antibiotic administration is essential for optimal clinical outcomes but significantly disrupts intestinal microbiota diversity, leading to loss of many beneficial microbes. Although gut microbiota diversity loss during allo-HSCT is associated with increased mortality, approaches to reestablish depleted commensal bacteria have yet to be developed. We have initiated a randomized, controlled clinical trial of autologous fecal microbiota transplantation (auto-FMT) versus no intervention and have analyzed the intestinal microbiota profiles of 25 allo-HSCT patients (14 who received auto-FMT treatment and 11 control patients who did not). Changes in gut microbiota diversity and composition revealed that the auto-FMT intervention boosted microbial diversity and reestablished the intestinal microbiota composition that the patient had before antibiotic treatment and allo-HSCT. These results demonstrate the potential for fecal sample banking and posttreatment remediation of a patient's gut microbiota after microbiota-depleting antibiotic treatment during allo-HSCT.

authors

publication date

  • September 26, 2018

Research

keywords

  • Academic Article

Identity

Language

  • eng

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1126/scitranslmed.aap9489

PubMed ID

  • 30257956

Additional Document Info

volume

  • 10

number

  • 460