Early Fluid Overload Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Nonrelapse Mortality after Ex Vivo CD34-Selected Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
Stem Cell Transplantation
© 2018 In a recently published and validated definition of fluid overload (FO), grade ≥ 2 FO was significantly associated with an increased risk of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after unmodified and haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) using calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. We evaluated the effect of FO on outcomes in 169 patients undergoing myeloablative-conditioned ex vivo CD34+selected allo-HCT using the same grading scale. Thirty patients (17.8%) had grade ≥ 2 FO within the 30 days after ex vivo CD34+selected allo-HCT with a median onset at day 11 (range, -8 to 28). Age ≥ 55 years (odds ratio, 3.43; P =.005) and chemotherapy-based conditioning (odds ratio, 3.89; P =.007) were associated with an increased risk of grade ≥ 2 FO. Patients with early grade ≥ 2 FO had a significantly higher NRM when compared with patients with grade < 2 FO (24.1% versus 3.6% at day 100, P =.01). The HCT-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) ≥ 3, FEV1< 80, adjusted DLco< 80, and HLA mismatch were associated with an increased risk of NRM, whereas total body irradiation–based conditioning was associated with a reduced risk of NRM. In a multivariate analysis grade ≥ 2 FO was associated with increased NRM after adjusting for HCT-CI and HLA match (hazard ratio, 2.3; P =.014). There was a trend toward inferior relapse-free survival in patients with grade ≥ 2 FO compared with patients with grade < 2 FO, 62% versus 72% at 1 year (P =.07), and a trend toward inferior overall survival, 69% versus 79% at 1 year (P = 0.06), respectively. Our findings show that FO should be routinely assessed to identify patients at risk for NRM. Despite a CNI-free allo-HCT platform, regimen-related tissue and endothelial injury leads to FO in susceptible patients. FO is a highly relevant post-HCT toxicity that requires further inquiry.
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