The LeuT-fold neurotransmitter:Sodium symporter MhsT has two substrate sites
Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Plasma Membrane Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins
© 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All Rights Reserved. Crystal structures of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter MhsT revealed occluded inward-facing states with one substrate (Trp) bound in the primary substrate (S1) site and a collapsed extracellular vestibule, which in LeuT contains the second substrate (S2) site. In n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside, the detergent used to prepare MhsT for crystallization, the substrate-to-protein binding stoichiometry was determined by using scintillation proximity to be 1 Trp:MhsT. Here, using the same experimental approach, as well as equilibrium dialysis, we report that in n-decyl-β-D-maltoside, or after reconstitution in lipid, MhsT, like LeuT, can simultaneously bind two Trp substrate molecules. Trp binding to the S2 site sterically blocks access to a substituted Cys at position 33 in the S2 site, as well as access to the deeper S1 site. Mutation of either the S1 or S2 site disrupts transport, consistent with previous studies in LeuT showing that substrate binding to the S2 site is an essential component of the transport mechanism.
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