Androgen deprivation therapy potentiates the efficacy of vascular targeted photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer xenografts
© 2018 American Association for Cancer Research. Purpose: WST11 vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) is a local ablation approach relying upon rapid, free radical-mediated destruction of tumor vasculature. A phase III trial showed that VTP significantly reduced disease progression when compared with active surveillance in patients with low-risk prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to identify a druggable pathway that could be combined with VTP to improve its efficacy and applicability to higher risk prostate cancer tumors. Experimental Design: Transcriptome analysis of VTP-treated tumors (LNCaP-AR xenografts) was used to identify a candidate pathway for combination therapy. The efficacy of the combination therapy was assessed in mice bearing LNCaP-AR or VCaP tumors. Results: Gene set enrichment analysis identifies the enrichment of androgen-responsive gene sets within hours after VTP treatment, suggesting that the androgen receptor (AR) may be a viable target in combination with VTP. We tested this hypothesis in mice bearing LNCaP-AR xenograft tumors by using androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), degarelix, in combination with VTP. Compared with either ADT or VTP alone, a single dose of degarelix in concert with VTP significantly inhibited tumor growth. A sharp decline in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) confirmed AR inhibition in this group. Tumors treated by VTP and degarelix displayed intense terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining 7 days after treatment, supporting an increased apoptotic frequency underlying the effect on tumor inhibition. Conclusions: Improvement of local tumor control following androgen deprivation combined with VTP provides the rationale and preliminary protocol parameters for clinical trials in patients presented with locally advanced prostate cancer.
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