Detection of a vita-PAMP STINGs cells into reticulophagy Academic Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Apoptosis
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Homeostasis
  • Intestinal Mucosa
  • Phagocytes


  • Phagocytes cope with the threat of living bacteria via detection of vita-PAMPs, a specific class of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that denotes microbial viability and trigger a commensurate innate response. Prokaryotic mRNA and cyclic-di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) serve as vita-PAMPs for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively, and elicit heightened proinflammatory responses not warranted for dead bacteria. The innate sensor TMEM173/STING detects c-di-AMP produced by internalized live Gram-positive bacteria, and quickly mobilizes interdependent pre-formed cell-autonomous responses including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, MTOR inactivation, and reticulophagy. In turn, reticulophagy serves a dual role in restoring phagocyte homeostasis and orchestrating a type I IFN response. ER-stress induced macroautophagy/autophagy sequesters stressed ER, resolves ER stress and prevents apoptosis in response to live bacteria. Reticulophagy relocalizes ER-resident TMEM173/STING to phagophores, which then act as TMEM173/STING-signaling compartments. Here, we discuss our findings in the context of innate immunity and cell homeostasis.

publication date

  • May 2018



  • Academic Article



  • eng

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1080/15548627.2018.1441471

PubMed ID

  • 29782215

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 3