Prostatic adenocarcinoma in the setting of persistent müllerian duct syndrome: a case report
Carcinoma, Renal Cell
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis
Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) is a form of disordered sex development in which rudimentary Müllerian structures are identified in phenotypically and genotypically normal males. It is caused by defects in the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) system. Since patients with PMDS present with undescended testes, testosterone production by Leydig cells later in life is often decreased. The role of androgens in prostate cancerogenesis is well known. Cryptorchid testes and diminished testosterone levels in post pubertal life in patients with PMDS play a protective role against prostate cancer, and hence, prostate cancer is a rare event in patients with PMDS. Herein, we present a patient who underwent prostatectomy for high-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma with persistent Müllerian structures (such as rudimentary uterus, fallopian tubes, and cervix) identified during surgery. To our knowledge, this is the second case reported in the English language literature where PMDS was associated with prostate cancer.