Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Oxygen (CMRO2) Mapping by Combining Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) and Quantitative Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Imaging (qBOLD) Academic Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Algorithms
  • Brain
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Multiple Sclerosis


  • © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. Purpose: To map the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) by estimating the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) from gradient echo imaging (GRE) using phase and magnitude of the GRE data. Theory and Methods: 3D multi-echo gradient echo imaging and perfusion imaging with arterial spin labeling were performed in 11 healthy subjects. CMRO 2 and OEF maps were reconstructed by joint quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to process GRE phases and quantitative blood oxygen level-dependent (qBOLD) modeling to process GRE magnitudes. Comparisons with QSM and qBOLD alone were performed using ROI analysis, paired t-tests, and Bland-Altman plot. Results: The average CMRO 2 value in cortical gray matter across subjects were 140.4±14.9, 134.1±12.5, and 184.6±17.9μmol/100g/min, with corresponding OEFs of 30.9±3.4%, 30.0±1.8%, and 40.9±2.4% for methods based on QSM, qBOLD, and QSM+qBOLD, respectively. QSM+qBOLD provided the highest CMRO 2 contrast between gray and white matter, more uniform OEF than QSM, and less noisy OEF than qBOLD. Conclusion: Quantitative CMRO 2 mapping that fits the entire complex GRE data is feasible by combining QSM analysis of phase and qBOLD analysis of magnitude.

publication date

  • January 2018



  • Academic Article



  • eng

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1002/mrm.27135

PubMed ID

  • 29516537

Additional Document Info