Curative multicycle radioimmunotherapy monitored by quantitative SPECT/CT-based theranostics, using bispecific antibody pretargeting strategy in colorectal cancer
Central Nervous System
Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System
Radioimmunotherapy of solid tumors using antibody-targeted radionuclides has been limited by low therapeutic indices (TIs). We recently reported a novel 3-step pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) strategy based on a glycoprotein A33 (GPA33)-targeting bispecific antibody and a small-molecule radioactive hapten, a complex of (177)Lu and S-2-(4-aminobenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid ((177)Lu-DOTA-Bn), that leads to high TIs for radiosensitive tissues such as blood (TI = 73) and kidney (TI = 12). We tested our hypothesis that a fractionated anti-GPA33 DOTA-PRIT regimen calibrated to deliver a radiation absorbed dose to tumor of more than 100 Gy would lead to a high probability of tumor cure while being well tolerated by nude mice bearing subcutaneous GPA33-positive SW1222 xenografts. Methods: We treated groups of nude mice bearing 7-d-old SW1222 xenografts with a fractionated 3-cycle anti-GPA33 DOTA-PRIT regimen (total administered (177)Lu-DOTA-Bn activity, 167 MBq/mouse; estimated radiation absorbed dose to tumor, 110 Gy). In randomly selected mice undergoing treatment, serial SPECT/CT imaging was used to monitor treatment response and calculate radiation absorbed doses to tumor. Necropsy was done on surviving animals 100-200 d after treatment to determine frequency of cure and assess select normal tissues for treatment-related histopathologies. Results: Rapid exponential tumor progression was observed in control treatment groups (i.e., no treatment or (177)Lu-DOTA-Bn only), leading to euthanasia due to excessive tumor burden, whereas 10 of 10 complete responses were observed for the DOTA-PRIT-treated animals within 30 d. Treatment was well tolerated, and 100% histologic cure was achieved in 9 of 9 assessable animals without detectable radiation damage to critical organs, including bone marrow and kidney. Radiation absorbed doses to tumor derived from SPECT/CT (102 Gy) and from biodistribution (110 Gy) agreed to within 6.9%. Of the total dose of approximately 100 Gy, the first dose contributes 30%, the second dose 60%, and the third dose 10%. Conclusion: In a GPA33-positive human colorectal cancer xenograft mouse model, we validated a SPECT/CT-based theranostic PRIT regimen that led to 100% complete responses and 100% cures without any treatment-related toxicities, based on high TIs for radiosensitive tissues. These studies support the view that anti-GPA33 DOTA-PRIT will be a potent radioimmunotherapy regimen for GPA33-positive colorectal cancer tumors in humans.