In Vivo Imaging of Glutamine Metabolism to the Oncometabolite 2-Hydroxyglutarate in IDH1/2 Mutant Tumors
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular
The oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) is a signature biomarker in various cancers, where it accumulates as a result of mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). The metabolic source of 2-HG, in a wide variety of cancers, dictates both its generation and also potential therapeutic strategies, but this remains difficult to access in vivo. Here, utilizing patient-derived chondrosarcoma cells harboring endogenous mutations in IDH1 and IDH2, we report that 2-HG can be rapidly generated from glutamine in vitro. Then, using hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging (HP-MRI), we demonstrate that in vivo HP [1-(13)C] glutamine can be used to non-invasively measure glutamine-derived HP 2-HG production. This can be readily modulated utilizing a selective IDH1 inhibitor, opening the door to targeting glutamine-derived 2-HG therapeutically. Rapid rates of HP 2-HG generation in vivo further demonstrate that, in a context-dependent manner, glutamine can be a primary carbon source for 2-HG production in mutant IDH tumors.