The Impact of Toxicities on First-Year Outcomes after Ex Vivo CD34+-Selected Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Adults with Hematologic Malignancies
Stem Cell Transplantation
Factors that impact first-year morbidity and mortality in adults undergoing myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with ex vivo CD34(+) selection have not been previously reported. We assessed all toxicities ≥ grade 3 from the start of conditioning to date of death, relapse, or last contact in 200 patients during the first year after transplantation, identifying 1885 individual toxicities among 17 organ-based toxicity groups. The most prevalent toxicities in the first year were of infectious, metabolic, hematologic, oral/gastrointestinal, hepatic, cardiac, and pulmonary etiologies. Renal complications were minimal. Grades II to IV and III and IV acute GVHD at day 100 were 11.5% and 3%, respectively. In separate multivariate models, cardiovascular, hematologic, hepatic, neurologic, pulmonary, and renal toxicities negatively impacted nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival during the first year. A higher-than-targeted busulfan level, patient cytomegalovirus seropositivity, and an Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index of ≥3 were associated with increased risk of NRM and all-cause death. Ex vivo CD34(+) selection had a favorable 1-year OS of 75% and NRM of 17% and a low incidence of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. These data establish a benchmark to focus efforts in reducing toxicity burden while improving patient outcomes.