Regulation of inflammation by microbiota interactions with the host
The study of the intestinal microbiota has begun to shift from cataloging individual members of the commensal community to understanding their contributions to the physiology of the host organism in health and disease. Here, we review the effects of the microbiome on innate and adaptive immunological players from epithelial cells and antigen-presenting cells to innate lymphoid cells and regulatory T cells. We discuss recent studies that have identified diverse microbiota-derived bioactive molecules and their effects on inflammation within the intestine and distally at sites as anatomically remote as the brain. Finally, we highlight new insights into how the microbiome influences the host response to infection, vaccination and cancer, as well as susceptibility to autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders.