Reduced-volume radiotherapy for patients with localized intracranial nongerminoma germ cell tumors
Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System
Craniospinal irradiation is standard radiotherapy (RT) for localized intracranial nongerminoma germ cell tumors (NGGCT). Given its toxicity, there is interest in using smaller fields. We examined outcomes of NGGCT patients receiving reduced-volume RT at a single institution. Records of 16 patients who received reduced-volume RT as part of definitive treatment between 1996 and 2016 were reviewed. Median age at presentation was 10.8 years (range 4.6-41.0 years). Ten patients had pineal tumors and 6 had suprasellar tumors. All received chemotherapy and 9 patients received second-look surgery thereafter. RT volume was tumor-only to a median of 54 Gy (range 50.4-54 Gy) in 3 patients and whole-ventricle irradiation to a median of 30.6 Gy (range 30.6-36 Gy) with a boost to 54 Gy in 13 patients. Median follow-up was 4.1 years (range 1.9-19.3 years). Three patients recurred locally at a median 9.9 months (range 9.6-10.6 months) after diagnosis, and one of these developed leptomeningeal relapse after 30 months. One patient expired from disease 2.6 years post-diagnosis and another due to stroke 19.3 years post-diagnosis. Fourteen patients are alive with no evidence of disease. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the 4-year overall survival and failure-free survival are 92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 57-99%) and 81% (95% CI 53-94%), respectively. Excellent disease control was observed in these patients with no initial relapses outside of these RT fields. The results of ACNS1123 may better delineate patterns of failure and identify subgroups likely to benefit from this approach.