Cesium-131 brachytherapy for recurrent brain metastases: Durable salvage treatment for previously irradiated metastatic disease
Practice Guidelines as Topic
OBJECTIVE Managing patients whose intraparenchymal brain metastases recur after radiotherapy remains a challenge. Intraoperative cesium-131 (Cs-131) brachytherapy performed at the time of neurosurgical resection may represent an excellent salvage treatment option. The authors evaluated the outcomes of this novel treatment with permanent intraoperative Cs-131 brachytherapy. METHODS Thirteen patients with 15 metastases to the brain that recurred after stereotactic radiosurgery and/or whole brain radiotherapy were treated between 2010 and 2015. Stranded Cs-131 seeds were placed as a permanent volume implant. Prescription dose was 80 Gy at 5-mm depth from the resection cavity surface. The primary end point was resection cavity freedom from progression (FFP). Resection cavity freedom from progression (FFP), regional FFP, distant FFP, median survival, overall survival (OS), and toxicity were assessed. RESULTS The median duration of follow-up after salvage treatment was 5 months (range 0.5-18 months). The patients' median age was 64 years (range 51-74 years). The median resected tumor diameter was 2.9 cm (range 1.0-5.6 cm). The median number of seeds implanted was 19 (range 10-40), with a median activity per seed of 2.25 U (range 1.98-3.01 U) and median total activity of 39.6 U (range 20.0-95.2 U). The 1-year actuarial local FFP was 83.3%. The median OS was 7 months, and 1-year OS was 24.7%. Complications included infection (3), pseudomeningocele (1), seizure (1), and asymptomatic radionecrosis (RN) (1). CONCLUSIONS After failure of prior irradiation of brain metastases, re-irradiation with intraoperative Cs-131 brachytherapy implants provides durable local control and limits the risk of RN. The authors' initial experience demonstrates that this treatment approach is well tolerated and safe for patients with previously irradiated tumors after failure of more than 1 radiotherapy regimen and that it results in excellent response rates and minimal toxicity.