New Generation of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers for Optical Interconnects
Cell Transformation, Viral
Receptors, Cell Surface
© 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. This chapter addresses requirements for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), one of the major devices for data communication to meet the bandwidth demand. Single-mode (SM) operation makes it possible to overcome effects related to significant spectral dispersion of the multimode fiber (MMF) standardized for the 840-860nm wavelength range. The leaky VCSEL concept can allow SM operation without any adjustments in the oxide-confined VCSEL technology and does not require sacrificing the basic VCSEL parameters. The chapter investigates oxide-confined, leaky-design VCSELs and observes the characteristic leakage-effect-induced features in the vertical far-field pattern of the device. This observation confirms the validity of the leaky VCSEL concept, allows for better understanding of the device properties such as possible strain and heat gradients, oxide layer tapering, in-plane light scattering, and absorption. The chapter enables the engineering of advanced devices and photonic-integrated circuits with targeted design of oxide apertures or air gaps through quantitative evaluation of the leaky emission.
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