Follow up and recurrence Chapter uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Granular Cell Tumor
  • Keratoacanthoma
  • Soft Tissue Neoplasms


  • © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017.This chapter describes the unique challenges of clinical follow up of lentigo maligna (LM) and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM), including difficulty of identifying local recurrence in a background of actinically damaged skin. The various presentations of recurrent LM/LMM are described including pigmented, nonpigmented, in situ, and invasive disease. The techniques used to assist in monitoring for recurrence such as dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy are discussed. General guidelines for follow up, given a history of LM/LMM are the same as those for other types of melanoma, including at least a yearly physical/skin examination and a lymph node basin exam, with more frequent examinations for higher risk individuals, for example, those with invasive disease. As there are reports of a long latency to local recurrence (LR) in LM/LMM, greater than 3 years in several studies, long-term follow up of these patients is necessary. While the prognosis for locally recurrent LM/LMM has not been systematically studied, studies suggest that it is favorable to that of other melanoma subtypes. As the incidence of LM/LMM increases, studies of the characteristics of local recurrence are necessary to better define outcomes in this group.

publication date

  • January 2016



  • Book Chapter


Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1007/978-3-319-43787-3_15

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 189

end page

  • 200