Intramembrane and Intermembrane Lipid Transport
© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Cells maintain distinct lipid compositions in organelles, and these different lipid compositions are important for carrying out specific functions. The lipid identity of organelles is maintained by a combination of processes including targeted nonvesicular transport of lipids by lipid transfer proteins, sorting of lipids during vesicle budding, and enzymatic modification of lipids on specific organelles. At present, we have only partial understanding of how these processes are regulated at the molecular level and how they are orchestrated to provide appropriate levels of lipids in various organelles. In addition, most organelles have different lipid compositions in the two leaflets of the bilayer, and these differences also play essential biological roles. We have some understanding of active flipping of lipids by ATP-dependent enzymes (flippases and floppases), but in many cases the molecular basis for transbilayer movement of lipids is not understood.
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