Basic Definitions and Concepts: Organization of the Gut Microbiome
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
New claims are frequently made for a role for the microbiome in a disease or disorder previously considered remote from the gut. The microbiome has been linked to such seemingly unrelated entities as depression, anorexia nervosa, autism, Parkinson disease, allergy, and asthma. Although many of these proposals have been based on animal studies, explorations of the microbiome in human disease continue to proliferate, facilitated by technologies that provide a detailed assessment of the microbial inhabitants of our gastrointestinal tract and their biological activities and metabolic products. With these technologies come new terminologies, which are identified in this article.