Two hits in one: whole genome sequencing unveils LIG4 syndrome and urofacial syndrome in a case report of a child with complex phenotype.
Ligase IV syndrome, a hereditary disease associated with compromised DNA damage response mechanisms, and Urofacial syndrome, caused by an impairment of neural cell signaling, are both rare genetic disorders, whose reports in literature are limited. We describe the first case combining both disorders in a specific phenotype.
We report a case of a 7-year old girl presenting with a complex phenotype characterized by multiple congenital abnormalities and dysmorphic features, microcephaly, short stature, combined immunodeficiency and severe vesicoureteral reflux. Whole Genome Sequencing was performed and a novel ligase IV homozygous missense c.T1312C/p.Y438H mutation was detected, and is believed to be responsible for most of the clinical features of the child, except vesicoureteral reflux which has not been previously described for ligase IV deficiency. However, we observed a second rare damaging (nonsense) homozygous mutation (c.C2125T/p.R709X) in the leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 2 gene that encodes a protein implicated in neural cell signaling and oncogenesis. Interestingly, this mutation has recently been reported as pathogenic and causing urofacial syndrome, typically displaying vesicoureteral reflux. Thus, this second mutation completes the missing genetic explanation for this intriguing clinical puzzle. We verified that both mutations fit an autosomal recessive inheritance model due to extensive consanguinity.
We successfully identified a novel ligase IV mutation, causing ligase IV syndrome, and an additional rare leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 2 gene nonsense mutation, in the context of multiple autosomal recessive conditions due to extensive consanguinity. This work demonstrates the utility of Whole Genome Sequencing data in clinical diagnosis in such cases where the combination of multiple rare phenotypes results in very intricate clinical pictures. It also reports a novel causative mutation and a clinical phenotype, which will help in better defining the essential features of both ligase IV and leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 2 deficiency syndromes.