Addition of Surgery After Radiation Significantly Improves Survival in Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Population-Based Analysis
© 2016 Société Internationale de ChirurgieObjectives: Limited work, either retrospective or prospective, has been done to investigate whether or not there is a cause-specific mortality (CSM) or all-cause mortality (ACM) benefit to adding surgery following neoadjuvant treatment for Stage IIIB NSCLC. Methods: We extracted patients with Stage IIIB NSCLC from the Survival, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) database treated from 2004 to 2012 with either radiation alone or radiation followed by surgery. Other variables extracted were age, sex, race, and tumor location. The impact of patient and treatment variables on CSM and ACM was explored using Cox multivariable regression analysis. Results: A total of 14,065 patients were extracted from the SEER database. On multivariable analysis, even after adjustment for age, gender, race, and site, radiation followed by surgery was associated with a reduction in cause-specific mortality compared to radiation alone (adjusted HR 0.46; 95 % CI 0.41, 0.52; p < 0.0001). Median overall survival was 11 months in the radiotherapy alone arm versus 29 months in the radiotherapy plus surgery arm (p < 0.0001 by log-rank test). After adjustment for these same factors, radiation followed by surgery was also associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality compared with radiation alone (adjusted HR 0.47; 95 % CI 0.42, 0.52; p < 0.0001). Median cause-specific survival was 12 months in the radiotherapy alone arm versus 33 months in the radiotherapy plus surgery arm (p < 0.0001 by log-rank test). Discussion: In the SEER database, there appears to be both a CSM and ACM benefit to adding surgery following radiation for Stage IIIB NSCLC.
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