Effects of roflumilast in COPD patients receiving inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist fixed-dose combination: RE(2)SPOND rationale and study design. Academic Article uri icon



  • Roflumilast, a once-daily, selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, reduces the risk of COPD exacerbations in patients with severe COPD associated with chronic bronchitis and a history of exacerbations. The RE(2)SPOND study is examining whether roflumilast, when added to an inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA) fixed-dose combination (FDC), further reduces exacerbations. The methodology is described herein. In this Phase IV, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, participants were randomized 1:1 (stratified by long-acting muscarinic antagonist use) to receive roflumilast or placebo, plus ICS/LABA FDC, for 52 weeks. Eligible participants had severe COPD associated with chronic bronchitis, had two or more moderate-severe exacerbations within 12 months, and were receiving ICS/LABA FDC for ≥3 months. The primary efficacy measure is the rate of moderate or severe COPD exacerbations per participant per year. The secondary efficacy outcomes include mean change in prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over 52 weeks, rate of severe exacerbations, and rate of moderate, severe, or antibiotic-treated exacerbations. Additional assessments include spirometry, rescue medication use, the COPD assessment test, daily symptoms using the EXACT-Respiratory symptoms (E-RS) questionnaire, all-cause and COPD-related hospitalizations, and safety and pharmacokinetic measures. Across 17 countries, 2,354 participants were randomized from September 2011 to October 2014. Enrollment goal was met in October 2014, and study completion occurred in June 2016. This study will further characterize the effects of roflumilast added to ICS/LABA on exacerbation rates, lung function, and health of severe-very severe COPD participants at risk of further exacerbations. The results will determine the clinical benefits of roflumilast combined with standard-of-care inhaled COPD treatment.

publication date

  • 2016



  • Academic Article



  • eng

PubMed Central ID

  • PMC4994799

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.2147/COPD.S109661

PubMed ID

  • 27574416

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 1921

end page

  • 1928


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