Proposals to Conduct Randomized Controlled Trials Without Informed Consent: a Narrative Review
Early Detection of Cancer
Primary Health Care
Of all designs discussed here, only cluster randomized designs and emergency research are routinely used, with the justification that informed consent is infeasible in those settings. Other designs have raised concerns that they do not appropriately respect patient autonomy. Recent proposals have emphasized the importance for RWOC of demonstrating such respect through systematic patient engagement, transparency, and accountability, potentially in the context of learning health care systems.