Immune checkpoint therapy in renal cell carcinoma Review uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell
  • Immunomodulation
  • Kidney Neoplasms
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy


  • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a largely chemotherapy-resistant disease that is commonly treated with molecularly targeted therapies. Evidence suggests that RCC is also an immune-responsive disease, and checkpoint inhibitors are in active development as agents for the treatment of systemic disease. Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory immune checkpoint, and blockade of the PD-1 cascade is an attractive target in RCC. Expression of the ligand for PD-1 in RCC has been shown to be a negative prognostic factor; however, response to PD-1 blockade is not restricted to tumors expressing the ligand for PD-1. Nivolumab is the most completely characterized anti-PD-1 agent in RCC and has been shown to be efficacious as monotherapy. Currently, there are multiple ongoing clinical trials exploring the use of combination therapy with PD-1 blockade.

publication date

  • May 25, 2016



  • Review



  • eng

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/PPO.0000000000000177

PubMed ID

  • 27111903

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 92

end page

  • 5


  • 22


  • 2