The Etiology and Arthroscopic Surgical Management of Cam Lesions
Cam-type deformity of the proximal femur is a relative increase in the discrepancy of the femoral head-neck offset. The etiology is unknown; several conditions have been implicated in the development of abnormal proximal femoral anatomy. Recent evidence suggests that high-impact sports place stress on the immature physis during growth and may play an important role. Imaging is essential in the initial diagnostic workup, characterization of pathology, preoperative planning, and intraoperative decision making. Short-term and mid-term outcomes for arthroscopic osteoplasty of cam lesions for both isolated cam-type deformity and mixed cam-pincer femoroacetabular impingement have been well-described and are favorable.