Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms With Pipeline Embolization Device: Newer Applications and Technical Advances
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Pipeline embolization device (PED) is a flow diverter used in the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms, particularly those with unfavorable configurations. It works by causing progressive flow redirection leading to thrombosis within the aneurysm. PED was initially approved for adults with large or giant wide-necked (≥4 mm or no discernible neck) aneurysms of the internal carotid artery (ICA) from the petrous to the superior hypophyseal segments. Studies have shown a superior aneurysm occlusion rate of 85 % at 6 months for the PED and mortality ranging from 2.6 to 4 %. There appears to be a knowledge gap in terms of the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy and efficacy of assessing platelet inhibition. However, increasing operator experience and favorable longer-term outcome data have led to the exploration of PED for a wide array of off-label uses. Given the paucity of good-quality studies comparing PED with other endovascular/surgical treatment options, several multicenter randomized trials are currently underway to answer these important questions.