© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.Helminthic parasites during their life cycles can invade the respiratory system and cause lung diseases. Although these diseases are commonly encountered in the tropical regions of the world, they are increasingly being reported from other parts of the world due to an increase in the occurrence of immunosuppression (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, organ transplantation, the use of immunosuppressive drugs) and transcontinental travel. Although there are new tests for the diagnosis of some parasitic diseases, frequently, cases of helminthic infections are misdiagnosed since serological tests are not sensitive in chronic cases. The diagnosis of these diseases is based on the identification of the causative organism in the stool, sputum, other body fluids, or tissue specimens including wedge resections and lobectomy as happens in cases of dirofilaria infection which may simulate primary or metastatic lung tumor.
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