Elimination of truncal vein reflux: Surgery, thermal ablation, and chemical ablation for chronic venous disorders
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
© Springer-Verlag London 2013. All rights are reserved.Signs and symptoms of chronic venous disorders are reviewed in the Chap. 5 and will not be reiterated here. Symptoms rarely, if ever, improve or resolve without appropriate intervention targeting incompetent veins. Likewise, the physical signs will inexorably worsen over time, although the rate and extent to which they will do so is unpredictable in the individual patient.
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