Metabolic and Non-Cognitive Manifestations of Alzheimers Disease: The Hypothalamus as Both Culprit and Target of Pathology
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasingly recognized as a complex neurodegenerative disease beginning decades prior to the cognitive decline. While cognitive deficits remain the cardinal manifestation of AD, metabolic and non-cognitive abnormalities, such as alterations in body weight and neuroendocrine functions, are also present, often preceding the cognitive decline. Furthermore, hypothalamic dysfunction can also be a driver of AD pathology. Here we offer a brief appraisal of hypothalamic dysfunction in AD and provide insight into an underappreciated dual role of the hypothalamus as both a culprit and target of AD pathology, as well as into new opportunities for therapeutic interventions and biomarker development.