90Y-daclizumab, an anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody, provided responses in 50% of patients with relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit
Despite significant advances in the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), a significant proportion of patients will not respond or will subsequently relapse. We identified CD25, the IL-2 receptor alpha subunit, as a favorable target for systemic radioimmunotherapy of HL. The scientific basis for the clinical trial was that, although most normal cells with exception of Treg cells do not express CD25, it is expressed by a minority of Reed-Sternberg cells and by most polyclonal T cells rosetting around Reed-Sternberg cells. Forty-six patients with refractory and relapsed HL were evaluated with up to seven i.v. infusions of the radiolabeled anti-CD25 antibody (90)Y-daclizumab. (90)Y provides strong β emissions that kill tumor cells at a distance by a crossfire effect. In 46 evaluable HL patients treated with (90)Y-daclizumab there were 14 complete responses and nine partial responses; 14 patients had stable disease, and nine progressed. Responses were observed both in patients whose Reed-Sternberg cells expressed CD25 and in those whose neoplastic cells were CD25(-) provided that associated rosetting T cells expressed CD25. As assessed using phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) as a bioindicator of the effects of radiation exposure, predominantly nonmalignant cells in the tumor microenvironment manifested DNA damage, as reflected by increased expression of γ-H2AX. Toxicities were transient bone-marrow suppression and myelodysplastic syndrome in six patients who had not been evaluated with bone-marrow karyotype analyses before therapy. In conclusion, repeated (90)Y-daclizumab infusions directed predominantly toward nonmalignant T cells rosetting around Reed-Sternberg cells provided meaningful therapy for select HL patients.