Eligibility for palivizumab prophylaxis in a cohort of children with severe bronchiolitis
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections
In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) updated their recommendations for palivizumab prophylaxis for children who are at high risk for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. To investigate the potential impact of the more restrictive 2014 criteria on the eligibility for palivizumab prophylaxis, we applied the 2012 and 2014 AAP recommendations for palivizumab prophylaxis to a multicenter cohort of 2207 US children hospitalized for bronchiolitis. According to the 2012 AAP recommendations, 215 children (9.7%) were eligible for palivizumab prophylaxis, while 140 children (6.3%) would have been eligible based on the 2014 updated recommendations (34.9% relative decrease; 95%CI: 28.5-41.7%). The decrease was largely driven by the restriction of eligibility to preterm infants with gestational age <29 weeks. Further development of and refinement of cost-effective approaches for the prevention of severe RSV infection are needed.