Id1 expression in endothelial cells of the colon is required for normal response to injury
Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
Early Growth Response Protein 1
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Inhibitor of DNA binding (ID)-1 is important for angiogenesis during embryogenesis and tumor development. Whether ID1 expression in endothelial cells of the colon is required for normal response to injury is unknown. We demonstrate that Id1 is up-regulated in colonic endothelial cells in an experimental model of colitis and in the inflamed mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Because prostaglandin E2 and tumor necrosis factor-α are also elevated in colitis, we determined whether these factors could induce ID1 transcription in cultured endothelial cells. Tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated ID1 transcription via early growth response 1 protein (Egr-1). By contrast, the induction of ID1 by prostaglandin E2 was mediated by cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). To determine whether the increased ID1 levels in the endothelial cells of inflamed mucosa were an adaptive response that modulated the severity of tissue injury, Id1 was conditionally depleted in the endothelium of mice, which sensitized the mice to more severe chemical colitis, including more severe diarrhea, bleeding, and histological injury, and shorter colon compared with control mice. Moreover, depletion of Id1 in the vasculature was associated with increased CD31(+) aggregates and increased vascular permeability in inflamed mucosa compared with those in Id1 wild-type control mice. These results suggest that endothelial ID1 up-regulation in inflamed colonic mucosa is an adaptive response that modulates the severity of tissue injury.