Prognostic and Prediction Tools in Bladder Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature
Decision Support Techniques
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
We looked at models that aim to predict outcomes for patients with bladder cancer (BCa). We found a large number of prediction models that hold the promise of facilitating treatment decisions for patients with BCa. However, many models are missing confirmation in a different patient cohort, and only a few studies have tested the clinical utility of any given model as measured by its ability to improve clinical decision making.