High mammographic density is associated with an increase in stromal collagen and immune cells within the mammary epithelium
Mammary Glands, Human
We confirmed increased proportions of stroma and epithelium, increased aromatase activity and no changes in hormone receptor or Ki-67 marker status in HMD tissue. The HMD region showed increased collagen deposition and organisation as well as decreased alternatively activated macrophages in the stroma. The HMD epithelium may be a site for local inflammation, as we observed a significant increase in CD45(+)/vimentin(+) immune cells in this area.