Multiphoton microscopy: A potential intraoperative tool for the detection of carcinoma in situ in human bladder
Carcinoma in Situ
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell
Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Our study demonstrates the capability of MPM to identify and differentiate benign from malignant flat bladder lesions, especially CIS. With the advent of MPM endoscopes, we foresee their potential as a biopsy guidance tool for early detection and treatment of CIS, thus reducing the rate of biopsies with benign diagnoses and their associated complications.