MicroRNA signature and cardiovascular dysfunction
The worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes and the associated elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emphasized the need to seek new therapeutic targets to offset the negative impact on human health outcomes. In this regards, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs that mediate posttranscriptional gene silencing, have received considerable interest. miRNAs repress gene expression by their ability to pair with target sequences in the 3' untranslated region of the messenger RNA. miRNAs play a crucial role in the biogenesis and function of the cardiovascular system and are implicated as dynamic regulators of cardiac and vascular signaling and pathophysiology. Numerous miRNAs have been identified as novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for CVD. In this review, we discuss the contribution of miRNAs to the regulation of CVD, their role in macrovascular/microvascular (dys)function, their potential as important biomarkers for the early detection of CVD, and, finally, as therapeutic targets.