Intensified mycophenolate mofetil dosing and higher mycophenolic acid trough levels reduce severe acute graft-versus-host disease after double-unit cord blood transplantation
Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
Graft vs Host Disease
Although mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has replaced corticosteroids as immunosuppression in cord blood transplantation (CBT), optimal MMF dosing has yet to be established. We intensified MMF dosing from every 12 to every 8 hours to augment graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in double-unit cord blood transplantation (dCBT) and evaluated outcomes according to the total daily MMF dose/kg in 174 dCBT recipients (median age, 39 years; range, 1 to 71) who underwent transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Recipients of an MMF dose ≤ the median (36 mg/kg/day) had an increased day 100 grade III and IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) incidence compared with patients who received >36 mg/kg/day (24% versus 8%, P = .008). Recipients of ≤ the median dose who had highly HLA allele (1 to 3 of 6) mismatched dominant units had the highest day 100 grade III and IV aGVHD incidence of 37% (P = .009). This finding was confirmed in multivariate analysis (P = .053). In 83 patients evaluated for mycophenolic acid (MPA) troughs, those with a mean week 1 and 2 trough < .5 μg/mL had an increased day 100 grade III and IV aGVHD of 26% versus 9% (P = .063), and those who received a low total daily MMF dose and had a low mean week 1 and 2 MPA trough had a 40% incidence (P = .008). Higher MMF dosing or MPA troughs had no impact on engraftment after myeloablation. This analysis supports intensified MMF dosing in milligram per kilogram per day and MPA trough level monitoring early after transplantation in dCBT recipients.