Microbiota-mediated inflammation and antimicrobial defense in the intestine Review uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Disease Resistance
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome
  • Intestinal Mucosa


  • The diverse microbial populations constituting the intestinal microbiota promote immune development and differentiation, but because of their complex metabolic requirements and the consequent difficulty culturing them, they remained, until recently, largely uncharacterized and mysterious. In the last decade, deep nucleic acid sequencing platforms, new computational and bioinformatics tools, and full-genome characterization of several hundred commensal bacterial species facilitated studies of the microbiota and revealed that differences in microbiota composition can be associated with inflammatory, metabolic, and infectious diseases, that each human is colonized by a distinct bacterial flora, and that the microbiota can be manipulated to reduce and even cure some diseases. Different bacterial species induce distinct immune cell populations that can play pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, and thus the composition of the microbiota determines, in part, the level of resistance to infection and susceptibility to inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes recent work characterizing commensal microbes that contribute to the antimicrobial defense/inflammation axis.

publication date

  • January 2015



  • Review



  • eng

PubMed Central ID

  • PMC4540477

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1146/annurev-immunol-032713-120238

PubMed ID

  • 25581310

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 227

end page

  • 56


  • 33