Immune checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy
Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
Immunologic checkpoint blockade with antibodies that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and the programmed cell death protein 1 pathway (PD-1/PD-L1) have demonstrated promise in a variety of malignancies. Ipilimumab (CTLA-4) and pembrolizumab (PD-1) are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced melanoma, and additional regulatory approvals are expected across the oncologic spectrum for a variety of other agents that target these pathways. Treatment with both CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 blockade is associated with a unique pattern of adverse events called immune-related adverse events, and occasionally, unusual kinetics of tumor response are seen. Combination approaches involving CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 blockade are being investigated to determine whether they enhance the efficacy of either approach alone. Principles learned during the development of CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 approaches will likely be used as new immunologic checkpoint blocking antibodies begin clinical investigation.