Impaired oxidative metabolism and calcium mishandling underlie cardiac dysfunction in a rat model of post-acute isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury
Stress-induced cardiomyopathy, triggered by acute catecholamine discharge, is a syndrome characterized by transient, apical ballooning linked to acute heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias. Rats receiving an acute isoproterenol (ISO) overdose (OV) suffer cardiac apex ischemia-reperfusion damage and arrhythmia, and then undergo cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. Nevertheless, the subcellular mechanisms underlying cardiac dysfunction after acute damage subsides are not thoroughly understood. To address this question, Wistar rats received a single ISO injection (67 mg/kg). We found in vivo moderate systolic and diastolic dysfunction at 2 wk post-ISO-OV; however, systolic dysfunction recovered after 4 wk, while diastolic dysfunction worsened. At 2 wk post-ISO-OV, cardiac function was assessed ex vivo, while mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and stress were assessed in vitro, and Ca(2+) handling in ventricular myocytes. These were complemented with sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), phospholamban (PLB), and RyR2 expression studies. Ex vivo, basal mechanical performance index (MPI) and oxygen consumption rate (MVO2) were unchanged. Nevertheless, upon increase of metabolic demand, by β-adrenergic stimulation (1-100 nM ISO), the MPI versus MVO2 relation decreased and shifted to the right, suggesting MPI and mitochondrial energy production uncoupling. Mitochondria showed decreased oxidative metabolism, membrane fragility, and enhanced oxidative stress. Myocytes presented systolic and diastolic Ca(2+) mishandling, and blunted response to ISO (100 nM), and all these without apparent changes in SERCA, PLB, or RyR2 expression. We suggest that post-ISO-OV mitochondrial dysfunction may underlie decreased cardiac contractility, mainly by depletion of ATP needed for myofilaments and Ca(2+) transport by SERCA, while exacerbated oxidative stress may enhance diastolic RyR2 activity.