Precision microbiome reconstitution restores bile acid mediated resistance to Clostridium difficile Academic Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Bile Acids and Salts
  • Clostridium difficile
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Intestines
  • Microbiota


  • The gastrointestinal tracts of mammals are colonized by hundreds of microbial species that contribute to health, including colonization resistance against intestinal pathogens. Many antibiotics destroy intestinal microbial communities and increase susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. Among these, Clostridium difficile, a major cause of antibiotic-induced diarrhoea, greatly increases morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Which intestinal bacteria provide resistance to C. difficile infection and their in vivo inhibitory mechanisms remain unclear. Here we correlate loss of specific bacterial taxa with development of infection, by treating mice with different antibiotics that result in distinct microbiota changes and lead to varied susceptibility to C. difficile. Mathematical modelling augmented by analyses of the microbiota of hospitalized patients identifies resistance-associated bacteria common to mice and humans. Using these platforms, we determine that Clostridium scindens, a bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating intestinal bacterium, is associated with resistance to C. difficile infection and, upon administration, enhances resistance to infection in a secondary bile acid dependent fashion. Using a workflow involving mouse models, clinical studies, metagenomic analyses, and mathematical modelling, we identify a probiotic candidate that corrects a clinically relevant microbiome deficiency. These findings have implications for the rational design of targeted antimicrobials as well as microbiome-based diagnostics and therapeutics for individuals at risk of C. difficile infection.

publication date

  • January 8, 2015



  • Academic Article



  • eng

PubMed Central ID

  • PMC4354891

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1038/nature13828

PubMed ID

  • 25337874

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 205

end page

  • 8


  • 517


  • 7533