DNA Hydroxymethylation Profiling Reveals that WT1 Mutations Result in Loss of TET2 Function in Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Somatic mutations in IDH1/IDH2 and TET2 result in impaired TET2-mediated conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). The observation that WT1 inactivating mutations anticorrelate with TET2/IDH1/IDH2 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) led us to hypothesize that WT1 mutations may impact TET2 function. WT1 mutant AML patients have reduced 5hmC levels similar to TET2/IDH1/IDH2 mutant AML. These mutations are characterized by convergent, site-specific alterations in DNA hydroxymethylation, which drive differential gene expression more than alterations in DNA promoter methylation. WT1 overexpression increases global levels of 5hmC, and WT1 silencing reduced 5hmC levels. WT1 physically interacts with TET2 and TET3, and WT1 loss of function results in a similar hematopoietic differentiation phenotype as observed with TET2 deficiency. These data provide a role for WT1 in regulating DNA hydroxymethylation and suggest that TET2 IDH1/IDH2 and WT1 mutations define an AML subtype defined by dysregulated DNA hydroxymethylation.