Establishing reference values for central blood pressure and its amplification in a general healthy population and according to cardiovascular risk factors. Academic Article Article uri icon

Overview

MeSH

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Blood Pressure Determination
  • Female
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Reference Values
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Systole
  • Young Adult

MeSH Major

  • Blood Pressure
  • Cardiovascular Diseases

abstract

  • Estimated central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) and amplification (Brachial SBP-cSBP) are non-invasive measures potentially prognostic of cardiovascular (CV) disease. No worldwide, multiple-device reference values are available. We aimed to establish reference values for a worldwide general population standardizing between the different available methods of measurement. How these values were significantly altered by cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) was then investigated. Existing data from population surveys and clinical trials were combined, whether published or not. Reference values of cSBP and amplification were calculated as percentiles for 'Normal' (no CVRFs) and 'Reference' (any CVRFs) populations. We included 45,436 subjects out of 82,930 that were gathered from 77 studies of 53 centres. Included subjects were apparently healthy, not treated for hypertension or dyslipidaemia, and free from overt CV disease and diabetes. Values of cSBP and amplification were stratified by brachial blood pressure categories and age decade in turn, both being stratified by sex. Amplification decreased with age and more so in males than in females. Sex was the most powerful factor associated with amplification with 6.6 mmHg (5.8-7.4) higher amplification in males than in females. Amplification was marginally but significantly influenced by CVRFs, with smoking and dyslipidaemia decreasing amplification, but increased with increasing levels of blood glucose. Typical values of cSBP and amplification in a healthy population and a population free of traditional CVRFs are now available according to age, sex, and brachial BP, providing values included from different devices with a wide geographical representation. Amplification is significantly influenced by CVRFs, but differently in men and women. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

authors

publication date

  • November 21, 2014

has subject area

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Blood Pressure
  • Blood Pressure Determination
  • Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Female
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Reference Values
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Systole
  • Young Adult

Research

keywords

  • Journal Article
  • Multicenter Study

Identity

Language

  • eng

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu293

PubMed ID

  • 25112663

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 3122

end page

  • 3133

volume

  • 35

number

  • 44